Botswana seems an unlikely place for an AIDS epidemic. Vast and underpopulated, it is largely free of the teeming slums, war zones, and inner-city drug cultures that epidemiologists say are typical niches for the human immunodeficiency virus. Botswana is an African paradise. Shortly after gaining its independence from Britain in , large diamond reserves were discovered, and the economy has since grown faster—and for longer—than that of virtually any other nation in the world. Education is free, corruption is rare, crime rates are low, and the nation has never been at war.
Risk factors. People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, for each injection and not sharing other drug using equipment and drug solutions. Health units that conduct serosurveys rarely operate in remote rural communities, and the data collected also does not measure people who seek alternate healthcare. In2. The strategy builds on public health achievements made in the HIV response and continues the momentum generated by the Millennium Development Goals and universal access commitments. This will include addressing stigma and discrimination that continue to be barriers Hercules lovers providing services in and with communities. It is Causes of hiv aids in africa if undetected or untreated and is the leading cause of death among people with HIV- responsible for 1 of every 3 HIV-associated deaths. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, Consider preexposure prophylaxis PrEP.
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This Cuases virus is the leading killer in Africa. If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised. The number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in was over seven times the number receiving treatment inwith nearly 1 million added in the previous year. The Lancet. Archived PDF from the original Mi vida lorca sir dyno April 25, March 28, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved 13 May Sexual Health. But due to the unavailability of several resources, she travels through the pages of the books she consumes on a daily basis. Correct and consistent use of male and female condoms during vaginal or Causes of hiv aids in africa penetration can protect against the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV targets the immune system and weakens people's defence systems against infections and some types of cancer.
- Studies of thousands of people have revealed that most people infected with HIV carry the virus for years before enough damage is done to the immune system for AIDS to develop.
- Although the continent is home to about
- The predictions yielded a full range of results, to include stability in infection rate and even a descent in cases in some regions.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV targets the immune system and weakens people's defence systems against infections and some types of cancer. As the virus destroys and impairs the function of immune cells, infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient. Immune function is typically measured by CD4 cell count. Immunodeficiency results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections, cancers and other diseases that people with healthy immune systems can fight off.
AIDS is defined by the development of certain cancers, infections, or other severe clinical manifestations. WHO Regional Offices will create additional regionspecific messages and materials under the global theme.
WHO is organizing a number of key session on topics such as men who have sex with men and other key populations, paediatric treatment, pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP , HIV drug resistance, differentiated service delivery models, elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV. Untreated maternal syphilis results in congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies and can lead to early fetal loss, premature birth, stillbirth, low birth weight and newborn deaths.
WHO works together with partners to set global standards for HIV prevention, care and treatment for pregnant women, mothers and their children; and to develop evidence-based strategies and define global targets, baselines and indicators that promote the integration of PMTCT into maternal, newborn and child health services, thus strengthening health systems.
More on Elimination of Mother-to-child Transmission. The symptoms of HIV vary depending on the stage of infection. Though people living with HIV tend to be most infectious in the first few months, many are unaware of their status until later stages.
The first few weeks after initial infection, individuals may experience no symptoms or an influenza-like illness including fever, headache, rash or sore throat. As the infection progressively weakens the immune system, an individual can develop other signs and symptoms, such as swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, diarrhoea and cough.
Without treatment, they could also develop severe illnesses such as tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and cancers such as lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma, among others.
HIV can be transmitted via the exchange of a variety of body fluids from infected individuals, such as blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal secretions. Individuals cannot become infected through ordinary day-to-day contact such as kissing, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing personal objects, food or water.
When such tests are used within a testing strategy according to a validated testing algorithm, HIV infection can be detected with great accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced by an individual as part of their immune system to fight off foreign pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself.
This early period of infection represents the time of greatest infectivity; however HIV transmission can occur during all stages of the infection. HIV testing should be voluntary and the right to decline testing should be recognized. Mandatory or coerced testing by a health-care provider, authority or by a partner or family member is not acceptable as it undermines good public health practice and infringes on human rights.
Some countries have introduced, or are considering, self-testing as an additional option. HIV self-testing is a process whereby a person who wants to know his or her HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the test results in private.
HIV self-testing does not provide a definitive diagnosis; instead, it is an initial test which requires further testing by a health worker using a nationally validated testing algorithm.
Individuals can reduce the risk of HIV infection by limiting exposure to risk factors. Key approaches for HIV prevention, which are often used in combination, include:. Correct and consistent use of male and female condoms during vaginal or anal penetration can protect against the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. This way people learn of their own infection status and access necessary prevention and treatment services without delay.
WHO also recommends offering testing for partners or couples. Additionally, WHO is recommending assisted partner notification approaches so that people with HIV receive support to inform their partners either on their own, or with the help of health care providers.
It is fatal if undetected or untreated and is the leading cause of death among people with HIV- responsible for 1 of every 3 HIV-associated deaths. TB screening should be offered routinely at HIV care services. This is a key intervention supported in 14 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision rates.
More than 10 randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of PrEP in reducing HIV transmission among a range of populations including serodiscordant heterosexual couples where one partner is infected and the other is not , men who have sex with men, transgender women, high-risk heterosexual couples, and people who inject drugs.
WHO recommendsPEP use for both occupational and non-occupational exposures and for adults and children. People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, for each injection and not sharing other drug using equipment and drug solutions. A comprehensive package of interventions for HIV prevention and treatment includes:. MTCT can be nearly fully prevented if both the mother and the child are provided with ARV drugs throughout the stages when infection could occur.
Several countries with a high burden of HIV infection are closing in on that goal. ART does not cure HIV infection but controls viral replication within a person's body and allows an individual's immune system to strengthen and regain the capacity to fight off infections. In , WHO released the second edition of the "Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. Alternative first-line treatment regimens are recommended, including an integrase inhibitor as an option in resource-limited settings and reduced dosage of a key recommended first-line drug, efavirenz, to improve tolerability and reduce costs.
By mid, Expanding access to treatment is at the heart of a new set of targets for which aim to end the AIDS epidemic by The policy also includes a recommendation that people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV should be offered preventive ART. This new recommendation builds on WHO guidance to offer a combination of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV acquisition, through pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP , for men who have sex with men. Following further evidence of the effectiveness and acceptability of PrEP, WHO has now broadened this recommendation to support the offer of PrEP to other population groups at significant HIV risk, such as people who inject drugs.
PrEP is an additional prevention choice based on a comprehensive package of services, including HIV testing, counselling and support and access to condoms and safe injection equipment. Expanding access to treatment is at the heart of a new set of targets for with the aim to end the AIDS epidemic by These three targets have collectively come to be known as the target.
Ending the AIDS epidemic in the African Region will require rapid acceleration of the response over the next five years and then sustained action through to and beyond. This can only be achieved through renewed political commitment, additional resources and technical and programmatic innovations. The strategy builds on public health achievements made in the HIV response and continues the momentum generated by the Millennium Development Goals and universal access commitments.
Young people, especially young women, continue to be at great risk of HIV infection. Children are often missed out, key populations such as sex workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users are not being reached, and men are also left behind.
Countries in the West and Central African sub-regions still lag behind the rest of the continent. WHO and its partners are working with these member states to implement catch-up plans to accelerate HIV treatment.
It highlights HIV prevention issues like access and the right to health, zero discrimination, testing and condoms in relation to specific groups such as adolescent girls and young women, key populations such as sex workers, and people living with HIV, to ensure no one is left behind. In , close to 11 million people were receiving lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This has led to the number of AIDS related deaths reducing by nearly a half since The guidelines will include advice on providing antiretroviral drugs for people who have been exposed to HIV — such as health workers, sex-workers, survivors of rape.
They also include recommendations on preventing and managing common opportunistic infections and diseases such as severe bacterial and malaria infections, cryptococcal meningitis and the many oral and skin infections that can affect people living with HIV. Zero discrimination. Zero AIDS related deaths ". It is a call to honor promises like the Abuja declaration and for African governments to at least hit targets for domestic spending on health and HIV.
Zero deaths from AIDS-related illness. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult but significant progress is underway. In , 2. An estimated 1. That is , fewer new infections worldwide than ten years ago, and , fewer deaths than in The Day, 1 December, quickly became established as one of the most successful commemorative days and is now recognized and celebrated by a diverse range of constituents every year around the globe.
At the end of , The promotion and protection of these rights are necessary to empower individuals and communities to respond to the epidemic.
By the end of , News from countries. Kenya embarks on new approach to prioritize future TB actions. Communication Strategy for National Health Insurance. Eritrea has heen certified free of dracunculiasis transmission. Huge bed net campaign kicks off in Sierra Leone. Increased access to quality family planning services is key to the health of adolescent girls and young women. Popular Communicable Diseases. Ebola Virus Disease. Traditional Medicine.
Headlines Uganda scores highly in the Measles-Rubella-Polio vaccination campaign. New milestone towards a polio-free world, but there is no time to relax.
People living with HIV Access to antiretroviral therapy ART Adolescents both sex contributed 13, of these deaths. Signs and symptoms. Risk factors. Behaviours and conditions that put individuals at greater risk of contracting HIV include: having unprotected anal or vaginal sex; having another sexually transmitted infection such as syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and bacterial vaginosis; sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment and drug solutions when injecting drugs; receiving unsafe injections, blood transfusions, tissue transplantation, medical procedures that involve unsterile cutting or piercing; and experiencing accidental needle stick injuries, including among health workers.
HIV testing services. Key approaches for HIV prevention, which are often used in combination, include: 1. Male and female condom use Correct and consistent use of male and female condoms during vaginal or anal penetration can protect against the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Testing and counselling, linkages to tuberculosis care Tuberculosis TB is the most common presenting illness and cause of death among people with HIV. Antiretroviral ARV drug use for prevention 5.
Harm reduction for injecting drug users People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, for each injection and not sharing other drug using equipment and drug solutions. A comprehensive package of interventions for HIV prevention and treatment includes: needle and syringe programmes; opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids and other evidence based drug dependence treatment; HIV testing and counselling; risk-reduction information and education; HIV treatment and care; access to condoms; and management of STIs, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis.
Additionally, the number of AIDS-related deaths in in both Africa as a whole and Sub-Saharan Africa alone was 32 percent less than the number in After you have finished reading, do something to help. July 16, Central Intelligence Agency. National Health Services. Kenyan males: 1.
Causes of hiv aids in africa. Signs and symptoms
Why is AIDS Worse in Africa? | glued-n-screwed.com
Although the continent is home to about Countries in North Africa and the Horn of Africa have significantly lower prevalence rates, as their populations typically engage in fewer high-risk cultural patterns that promote the virus' spread in Sub-Saharan Africa. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, such as the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation 's outreach programs.
The number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in was over seven times the number receiving treatment in , with nearly 1 million added in the previous year. The most obvious effect In many cases, AIDS causes the household to dissolve, as parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and upbringing. Much happens before this dissolution takes place: AIDS strips families of their assets and income earners, further impoverishing the poor.
Almost invariably, the burden of coping rests with women. Upon a family member becoming ill, the role of women as carers, income-earners and housekeepers is stepped up. They are often forced to step into roles outside their homes as well. Older people are also heavily affected by the epidemic; many have to care for their sick children and are often left to look after orphaned grandchildren.
It is hard to overemphasise the trauma and hardship that children As parents and family members become ill, children take on more responsibility to earn an income, produce food, and care for family members. Many children are now raised by their extended families and some are even left on their own in child-headed households. The illness or death of teachers is especially devastating in rural areas where schools depend heavily on one or two teachers. AIDS damages businesses by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and depleting skills.
Also, as the impact of the epidemic on households grows more severe, market demand for products and services can fall. The biggest increase in deaths AIDS is hitting adults in their most economically productive years and removing the very people who could be responding to the crisis.
As access to treatment is slowly expanded throughout the continent, millions of lives are being extended and hope is being given to people who previously had none.
Unfortunately though, the majority of people in need of treatment are still not receiving it, and campaigns to prevent new infections The earliest known cases of human HIV infection have been linked to western equatorial Africa, probably in southeast Cameroon where groups of the central common chimpanzee live. Current hypotheses also include that, once the virus jumped from chimpanzees or other apes to humans, the colonial medical practices of the 20th century helped HIV become established in human populations by The hunters then became infected with HIV and passed on the disease to other humans through bodily fluid contamination.
This theory is known as the "Bushmeat theory". HIV made the leap from rural isolation to rapid urban transmission as a result of urbanization that occurred during the 20th century. One of the most formative explanations is the poverty that dramatically impacts the daily lives of Africans. Researchers believe HIV was gradually spread by river travel. Trade along the rivers could have spread the virus, which built up slowly in the human population.
By the s, about 2, people in Africa may have had HIV,  including people in Kinshasa whose tissue samples from and have been preserved and studied retrospectively. The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome. In the s it spread silently across the globe until it became a pandemic, or widespread. Some areas of the world were already significantly impacted by AIDS, while in others the epidemic was just beginning.
The virus is transmitted by bodily fluid contact including the exchange of sexual fluids, by blood, from mother to child in the womb, and during delivery or breastfeeding. Then in and , heterosexual Africans also were diagnosed.
In the late s, international development agencies regarded AIDS control as a technical medical problem rather than one involving all areas of economic and social life. Because public health authorities perceived AIDS to be an urban phenomenon associated with prostitution, they believed that the majority of Africans who lived in "traditional" rural areas would be spared.
They believed that the heterosexual epidemic could be contained by focusing prevention efforts on persuading the so-called core transmitters—people such as sex workers and truck drivers, known to have multiple sex partners—to use condoms.
These factors retarded prevention campaigns in many countries for more than a decade. Although many governments in Sub-saharan Africa denied that there was a problem for years, they have now begun to work toward solutions. AIDS was at first considered a disease of gay men and drug addicts, but in Africa it took off among the general population. As a result, those involved in the fight against HIV began to emphasize aspects such as preventing transmission from mother to child, or the relationship between HIV and poverty, inequality of the sexes, and so on, rather than emphasizing the need to prevent transmission by unsafe sexual practices or drug injection.
This change in emphasis resulted in more funding, but was not effective in preventing a drastic rise in HIV prevalence. Almost 1 million of those patients were treated in Additionally, the number of AIDS-related deaths in in both Africa as a whole and Sub-Saharan Africa alone was 32 percent less than the number in Many activists have drawn attention to possible stigmatization of those testing as HIV positive. This is due to many factors such as a lack of understanding of the disease, lack of access to treatment, the media, knowing that AIDS is incurable, and prejudices brought on by a cultures beliefs.
The belief that only homosexuals could contract the diseases was later debunked as the number of heterosexual couples living with HIV increased. Unfortunately there were other rumors being spread by elders in Cameroon. They also claimed if a man was infected as a result of having sexual contact with a Fulani woman, only a Fulani healer could treat him".
Because of this belief that men can only get HIV from women many "women are not free to speak of their HIV status to their partners for fear of violence". Unfortunately This stigma makes it very challenging for Sub-Saharan Africans to share that they have HIV because they are afraid of being an outcast from their friends and family. The common belief is that once you have HIV you are destined to die. People seclude themselves based on these beliefs. They don't tell their family and live with guilt and fear because of HIV.
This group of individuals under fear of suspicion may avoid being mistakingly identified as stigmatized by simply avoiding HARHS utilization. The rewards of being considered normal' in the context of high-HIV-prevalence Sub-Saharan Africa are varied and great Other potential rewards of being considered normal include avoidance of being associated with promiscuity or prostitution, avoidance of emotional, social and physical isolation and avoidance of being blamed for others' illness" Using different prevention strategies in combination is not a new idea.
Combination prevention reflects common sense, yet it is striking how seldom the approach has been put into practice. Prevention efforts to date have overwhelmingly focused on reducing individual risk, with fewer efforts made to address societal factors that increase vulnerability to HIV. UNAIDS' combination prevention framework puts structural interventions—including programmes to promote human rights, to remove punitive laws that block the AIDS response, and to combat gender inequality and HIV related stigma and discrimination—at the centre of the HIV prevention agenda.
Most new infections were coming from people in long-term relationships who had multiple sexual partners. The abstinence, be faithful, use a condom ABC strategy to prevent HIV infection promotes safer sexual behavior and emphasizes the need for fidelity, fewer sexual partners, and a later age of sexual debut.
The implementation of ABC differs among those who use it. For example, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief has focused more on abstinence and fidelity than condoms  while Uganda has had a more balanced approach to the three elements. The effectiveness of ABC is controversial. In Botswana ,.
People who had talked to the counselors were twice as likely to mention abstinence and three times as likely to mention condom use when asked to describe ways to avoid infection.
However, they were no more likely than the uncounseled to mention being faithful as a good strategy. The people who had been counseled were also twice as likely to have been tested for HIV in the previous year, and to have discussed that possibility with a sex partner.
However, they were just as likely to have a partner outside marriage as the people who had not gotten a visit from a counselor, and they were no more likely to be using a condom in those liaisons.
There was a somewhat different result in a study of young Nigerians, ages 15 to 24, most unmarried, living in the city and working in semiskilled jobs. People in specific neighborhoods were counseled with an ABC message as part of a seven-year project funded by the U. Agency for International Development and its British counterpart.
The uncounseled group showed no increase in condom use—it stayed about 55 percent. In the counseled group, however, condom use by women in their last nonmarital sexual encounter rose from 54 percent to 69 percent.
For men, it rose from 64 percent to 75 percent. Stigmatizing attitudes appeared to be less common among the counseled group. A survey of 1, Kenyan teenagers found a fair amount of confusion about ABC's messages. Half of the teenagers could correctly define abstinence and explain why it was important. Only 23 percent could explain what being faithful meant and why it was important.
Some thought it meant being honest, and some thought it meant having faith in the fidelity of one's partner. Only 13 percent could correctly explain the importance of a condom in preventing HIV infection. About half spontaneously offered negative opinions about condoms, saying they were unreliable, immoral and, in some cases, were designed to let HIV be transmitted. Eswatini in announced that it was abandoning the ABC strategy because it was a dismal failure in preventing the spread of HIV.
In , the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided major funding for the loveLife website , an online sexual health and relationship resource for teenagers. The TeachAIDS prevention software, developed at Stanford University , was distributed to every primary, secondary, and tertiary educational institution in the country, reaching all learners from 6 to 24 years of age nationwide. The solutions are organized around three strategic pillars: diversified financing; access to medicines; and enhanced health governance.
The Roadmap defines goals, results and roles and responsibilities to hold stakeholders accountable for the realization of these solutions between and Chief among these are the traditionally liberal attitudes espoused by many communities inhabiting the subcontinent toward multiple sexual partners and pre-marital and outside marriage sexual activity.
In most of the developed world outside Africa, this means HIV transmission is high among prostitutes and other people who may have more than one sexual partner concurrently. Within the cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, it is relatively common for both men and women to be carrying on sexual relations with more than one person, which promotes HIV transmission.
When infected, most children die within one year because of the lack of treatment. Rather than having more of a specific group infected, male or female, the ratio of men and women infected with HIV are quite similar.
For African countries with advanced medical facilities, patents on many drugs have hindered the ability to make low cost alternatives. Natural disasters and conflict are also major challenges, as the resulting economic problems people face can drive many young women and girls into patterns of sex work in order to ensure their livelihood or that of their family, or else to obtain safe passage, food, shelter or other resources.