Skip to site alert. Skip to content. The diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia occurs when the external genitals do not appear clearly as male or female, calling into question the child's gender. This condition can be traumatizing for parents. Early in fetal development, the tissue that becomes the gonads is undifferentiated and has potential to form either ovaries or testes depending on genetics.
Masters and Johnson saw that sex was a joint act. Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection Clinic. Any time blood flow to the penis is impaired, erectile dysfunction is the girth result. However, there is little evidence to support a possible long term effect especially if other complications to episiotomy occurred later. Sexual desire disorders or decreased libido are characterized by a lack or absence for some period of time of sexual desire or libido for sexual activity or of sexual fantasies. The diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia occurs when the external genitals Sexual defects at birth not appear clearly as male or female, calling into question the child's dsfects. The study defcts Gungor et al, 26 also found no significant association between delivery type and sexual function. Ambiguous genitalia refers to sexual organs that aren't well formed or Advance rubber products clearly male or female. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res.
The eiger sanction nude. Types of DSDs
In the heart, the ductus arteriosus can remain after birth, leading to hypertension. Genes may Guide Intelligence throughout Life Ever wondered how your intelligence level is different from others? Valproate has antifolate effects, leading to Sezual tube closure-related defects such as Sexial bifida. If epigenetic changes occur and are heritable, studies of the DES-exposed third generation have implications for the influence of environmental endocrine disruptors on human health and evolution. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Small eye syndrome is medically known as microphthalmia. These birth defects included neural tube defects, malformations of the cardiac septa, anomalies of arteries and veins, and chromosomal Sexual defects at birth. Regarding children with ambiguous genitals, defectss sex chromosomes that is, whether they are a genetic female with XX chromosomes or a genetic male with XY chromosomes are an important factor, but other things also must be considered. Unusually small penis microphallus. In epispadias, the opening of the urethra is located on the top side of the penis instead of at the tip.
Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples.
- A birth defect is a problem that occurs when a baby is developing in utero in the womb.
- Diethylstilbestrol DES , a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen which was previously used clinically to support pregnancy , has been linked to a variety of long-term adverse effects in women who were treated with it during pregnancy and in their offspring.
- A birth defect , also known as a congenital disorder , is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
- Some of us have experienced sexual abuse in childhood or as adults.
Sexual dysfunction is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity , including physical pleasure, desire , preference, arousal or orgasm.
According to the DSM-5 , sexual dysfunction requires a person to feel extreme distress and interpersonal strain for a minimum of six months excluding substance or medication-induced sexual dysfunction. A thorough sexual history and assessment of general health and other sexual problems if any are very important. Assessing performance anxiety , guilt , stress and worry are integral to the optimal management of sexual dysfunction.
Many of the sexual dysfunctions that are defined are based on the human sexual response cycle , proposed by William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson , and then modified by Helen Singer Kaplan. Sexual dysfunction disorders may be classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders , arousal disorders , orgasm disorders and pain disorders. Sexual dysfunction among men and women are specifically studied in the fields of andrology and gynaecology respectively. Sexual desire disorders or decreased libido are characterized by a lack or absence for some period of time of sexual desire or libido for sexual activity or of sexual fantasies.
The condition ranges from a general lack of sexual desire to a lack of sexual desire for the current partner. The condition may have started after a period of normal sexual functioning or the person may always have had no or low sexual desire. The causes vary considerably, but include a possible decrease in the production of normal estrogen in women or testosterone in both men and women.
Other causes may be aging, fatigue, pregnancy, medications such as the SSRIs or psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. While a number of causes for low sexual desire are often cited, only some of these have ever been the object of empirical research. Sexual arousal disorders were previously known as frigidity in women and impotence in men, though these have now been replaced with less judgmental terms.
Impotence is now known as erectile dysfunction , and frigidity has been replaced with a number of terms describing specific problems that can be broken down into four categories as described by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : lack of desire, lack of arousal, pain during intercourse, and lack of orgasm.
For both men and women, these conditions can manifest themselves as an aversion to, and avoidance of, sexual contact with a partner. In men, there may be partial or complete failure to attain or maintain an erection, or a lack of sexual excitement and pleasure in sexual activity. There may be physiological origins to these disorders, such as decreased blood flow or lack of vaginal lubrication.
Chronic disease can also contribute, as well as the nature of the relationship between the partners. Additionally, the condition postorgasm illness syndrome POIS may cause symptoms when aroused, including adrenergic-type presentation; rapid breathing, paraesthesia, palpitations, headaches, aphasia, nausea, itchy eyes, fever, muscle pain and weakness and fatigue.
The aetiology of this condition is unknown, however it is believed to be a pathology of either the immune system or autonomic nervous systems. It is defined as a rare disease by the NIH but the prevalence is unknown. It is not thought to be psychiatric in nature, but it may present as anxiety relating to coital activities and thus may be incorrectly diagnosed as such.
There is no known cure or treatment. Erectile dysfunction or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. There are various underlying causes, such as damage to the nervi erigentes which prevents or delays erection, or diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease , which simply decreases blood flow to the tissue in the penis, many of which are medically reversible.
The causes of erectile dysfunction may be psychological or physical. Psychological erectile dysfunction can often be helped by almost anything that the patient believes in; there is a very strong placebo effect. Physical damage is much more severe. One leading physical cause of ED is continual or severe damage taken to the nervi erigentes.
These nerves course beside the prostate arising from the sacral plexus and can be damaged in prostatic and colorectal surgeries. Diseases are also common causes of erectile dysfunctional; especially in men. Diseases such as cardiovascular disease , multiple sclerosis , kidney failure , vascular disease and spinal cord injury are the source of erectile dysfunction. Due to its embarrassing nature and the shame felt by sufferers, the subject was taboo for a long time, and is the subject of many urban legends.
Folk remedies have long been advocated, with some being advertised widely since the s. The introduction of perhaps the first pharmacologically effective remedy for impotence, sildenafil trade name Viagra , in the s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by the news-worthiness of stories about it and heavy advertising.
It is estimated that around 30 million men in the United States and million men worldwide suffer from erectile dysfunction. The Latin term impotentia coeundi describes simple inability to insert the penis into the vagina.
It is now mostly replaced by more precise terms. Premature ejaculation is when ejaculation occurs before the partner achieves orgasm, or a mutually satisfactory length of time has passed during intercourse. There is no correct length of time for intercourse to last, but generally, premature ejaculation is thought to occur when ejaculation occurs in under two minutes from the time of the insertion of the penis.
Historically attributed to psychological causes, new theories suggest that premature ejaculation may have an underlying neurobiological cause which may lead to rapid ejaculation.
SSRI antidepressants are a common pharmaceutical culprit, as they can delay orgasm or eliminate it entirely. A common physiological culprit of anorgasmia is menopause , where one in three women report problems obtaining an orgasm during sexual stimulation following menopause.
Further to this there are what is called post-orgasm disorders, which would better categorise the condition: postorgasm illness syndrome see post-orgasm disorders section. Sexual pain disorders affect women almost exclusively and are also known as dyspareunia painful intercourse or vaginismus an involuntary spasm of the muscles of the vaginal wall that interferes with intercourse. Dyspareunia may be caused by insufficient lubrication vaginal dryness in women.
Poor lubrication may result from insufficient excitement and stimulation, or from hormonal changes caused by menopause , pregnancy , or breastfeeding. Irritation from contraceptive creams and foams can also cause dryness, as can fear and anxiety about sex. It is unclear exactly what causes vaginismus, but it is thought that past sexual trauma such as rape or abuse may play a role.
Another female sexual pain disorder is called vulvodynia or vulvar vestibulitis. In this condition, women experience burning pain during sex which seems to be related to problems with the skin in the vulvar and vaginal areas.
The cause is unknown. Post-orgasmic diseases cause symptoms shortly after orgasm or ejaculation. Post-coital tristesse PCT is a feeling of melancholy and anxiety after sexual intercourse that lasts for up to two hours.
Sexual headaches occur in the skull and neck during sexual activity, including masturbation, arousal or orgasm. In men, postorgasmic illness syndrome POIS causes severe muscle pain throughout the body and other symptoms immediately following ejaculation. The symptoms last for up to a week. Symptomology of POIS may present as adrenergic-type presentation; rapid breathing, paraesthesia, palpitations, headaches, aphasia, nausea, itchy eyes, fever, muscle pain and weakness and fatigue.
Dhat syndrome is another condition which occurs in men. It is a culture-bound syndrome which causes anxious and dysphoric mood after sex, but is distinct from the low-mood and concentration problems acute aphasia seen in postorgasm illness syndrome. Pelvic floor dysfunction can be an underlying cause of sexual dysfunction in both women and men, and is treatable by physical therapy. Erectile dysfunction from vascular disease is usually seen only amongst elderly individuals who have atherosclerosis.
Vascular disease is common in individuals who have diabetes , peripheral vascular disease , hypertension and those who smoke. Any time blood flow to the penis is impaired, erectile dysfunction is the end result. Hormone deficiency is a relatively rare cause of erectile dysfunction. In individuals with testicular failure like in Klinefelter syndrome , or those who have had radiation therapy , chemotherapy or childhood exposure to mumps virus , the testes may fail and not produce testosterone.
Other hormonal causes of erectile failure include brain tumors, hyperthyroidism , hypothyroidism or disorders of the adrenal gland. Structural abnormalities of the penis like Peyronie's disease can make sexual intercourse difficult. The disease is characterized by thick fibrous bands in the penis which leads to a deformed-looking penis. Drugs are also a cause of erectile dysfunction. Individuals who take drugs to lower blood pressure or use antipsychotics , antidepressants , sedatives, narcotics, antacids or alcohol can have problems with sexual function and loss of libido.
Priapism is a painful erection that occurs for several hours and occurs in the absence of sexual stimulation. This condition develops when blood gets trapped in the penis and is unable to drain out.
If the condition is not promptly treated, it can lead to severe scarring and permanent loss of erectile function. The disorder occurs in young men and children. Individuals with sickle-cell disease and those who abuse certain medications can often develop this disorder. There are many factors which may result in a person experiencing a sexual dysfunction. These may result from emotional or physical causes. Emotional factors include interpersonal or psychological problems, which can be the result of depression , sexual fears or guilt, past sexual trauma, and sexual disorders,  among others.
Sexual dysfunction is especially common among people who have anxiety disorders. Ordinary anxiousness can obviously cause erectile dysfunction in men without psychiatric problems, but clinically diagnosable disorders such as panic disorder commonly cause avoidance of intercourse and premature ejaculation.
Physical factors that can lead to sexual dysfunctions include the use of drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine , narcotics , stimulants, antihypertensives , antihistamines , and some psychotherapeutic drugs. Diseases such as diabetic neuropathy , multiple sclerosis , tumors , and, rarely, tertiary syphilis may also impact the activity, as could the failure of various organ systems such as the heart and lungs , endocrine disorders thyroid , pituitary , or adrenal gland problems , hormonal deficiencies low testosterone , other androgens , or estrogen and some birth defects.
Pelvic floor dysfunction is also a physical and underlying cause of many sexual dysfunctions. In the context of heterosexual relationships, one of the main reasons for the decline in sexual activity among these couples is the male partner experiencing erectile dysfunction.
This can be very distressing for the male partner, causing poor body image, and it can also be a major source of low desire for these men. If a woman has not been participating in sexual activity regularly in particular, activities involving vaginal penetration with her partner, if she does decide to engage in penetrative intercourse, she will not be able to immediately accommodate a penis without risking pain or injury.
According to Emily Wentzell, American culture has anti-aging sentiments that have caused sexual dysfunction to become "an illness that needs treatment" instead of viewing it as the natural part of the aging process it is. Not all cultures seek treatment; for example, a population of men living in Mexico often accept erectile dysfunction as a normal part of their maturing sexuality. Several theories have looked at female sexual dysfunction, from medical to psychological perspectives.
Three social psychological theories include: the self-perception theory, the overjustification hypothesis, and the insufficient justification hypothesis:. The importance of how a woman perceives her behavior should not be underestimated. Many women perceived sex as a chore as opposed to a pleasurable experience, and they tend to consider themselves sexually inadequate, which in turn does not motivate them to engage in sexual activity.
These can include: race, her gender, ethnicity, educational background, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, financial resources, culture, and religion. A study has found that African American women are the most optimistic about menopausal life; Caucasian women are the most anxious, Asian women are the most inhibited about their symptoms, and Hispanic women are the most stoic. About one third of the women experienced sexual dysfunction, which may lead to women's loss of confidence in their sexual lives.
See also: List of genetic disorders. Studies done around the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls and the Lipari Landfill in New Jersey have shown a higher proportion of low birth-weight babies than communities farther away from landfills. Teratology in the Twentieth Century Plus Ten. Bibcode : ScTEn. These findings confirmed, to Gregg, that, in fact, environmental causes for congenital disorders could exist.
Sexual defects at birth. Test your knowledge
Reviewing sexual function after delivery and its association with some of the reproductive factors
Disorders of sex development DSD are medical conditions involving the reproductive system. More specifically, these terms refer to " congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. The term has been controversial, and research has shown that affected people experience a negative impact, with the terminology impacting choice and utilization of health care providers.
DSDs are medical conditions involving the way the reproductive system develops from infancy and before birth through young adulthood. There are several types of DSDs and their effect on the external and internal reproductive organs varies greatly.
A frequently-used social and medical adjective for people with DSDs is "intersex". The most common DSD is congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH , which results in a person with female XX chromosomes having genitals that look somewhat masculine.
In mild cases, CAH results in a slightly enlarged clitoris, while in more severe cases it can be difficult to decide on observation whether a baby is male or female ambiguous genitalia.
CAH is caused by a problem with the adrenal glands and is usually treated by taking a daily medication to replace or supplement the missing adrenal hormones.
When this adrenal problem occurs in people with male XY chromosomes, the result is over-masculinization and premature puberty. Another common DSD is androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS , also known as "testicular feminising syndrome" in which a person with male XY chromosomes does not respond to testosterone in the usual way. This results in a body that to some degree has a feminine appearance.
In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome CAIS the result is a totally feminine appearance, including typical female breast development. Consequently, most young women with CAIS are unaware of their condition until the early teen years when they fail to menstruate.
In the milder form, called partial androgen insensitivity syndrome PAIS , the genitals can vary from mostly female to almost completely male. Some people with PAIS think of themselves as women or girls, others regard themselves as men or boys, and some consider themselves nonbinary.
It is caused by a shortage early in life of an enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT. DHT is required for the development of external male genitalia. Therefore, in this condition, a person with male XY chromosomes has a body that appears female before puberty. After puberty begins, other testosterone-activating enzymes become available and the body soon takes on a masculine appearance, with the scrotum and penis usually reaching typical or nearly-typical size.
If 5ARD is diagnosed at a young age, the child is often raised as a boy a Brazilian study suggested that the majority of adults with this condition consider themselves men  but this has been questioned in some more recent research. The penis males and clitoris females are essentially the same organ differing only in size, and generically called the phallus.
In typical males, the urethra is located at the tip of the penis, while in typical females the urethra is located below the base of the clitoris. When the phallus is of intermediate size, it is possible also to have a urethral opening located along the shaft; this condition is known as hypospadias. Open-minded parenting, appropriate and conservative medical intervention , and age-appropriate child involvement in the treatment plan contribute greatly to successful outcomes for the entire range of DSDs.
The term DSD and particularly its association with medical disorders has been controversial. The argument over terminology reflects a deeper disagreement over the extent to which intersex conditions require medical intervention, the appropriateness of certain interventions, and whether physicians and parents should make irreversible treatment decisions on behalf of young children if the condition is not life-threatening.
The Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders stated that evidence for early surgery for cosmetic reasons is lacking, outcomes include "decreased sexual sensitivity" and long term outcome data is absent.
In , Juan E. Referencing the involuntary surgical "sex-normalising or other procedures" on "intersex persons", the report recommends a range of guiding principles for medical treatment, including ensuring patient autonomy in decision-making, ensuring non-discrimination, accountability and access to remedies. During , the Council of Europe ,  and Inter-American Commission on Human Rights  called for a review of medical classifications that unnecessarily medicalize intersex traits    an end to medical interventions without consent, and improved disclosure.
National and international medical classifications which pathologise variations in sex characteristics should be reviewed with a view to eliminating obstacles to the effective enjoyment, by intersex persons, of human rights, including the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights  and UN Treaty Bodies have called for informed consent by individuals subjected to medical treatment, improved disclosure, and access to redress.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Disorders of sex development Other names Disorders of sex differentiation, differences of sex development  Specialty Medical genetics Intersex topics. Human rights and legal issues. Compulsory sterilization Discrimination Human rights reports Legal recognition Malta declaration Medical interventions Sex assignment Sex characteristics legal term Yogyakarta Principles.
Medicine and biology. Society and culture. History and events. Rights by country. See also. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can.
Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. August Further information: Intersex human rights and Intersex medical interventions. Beh January Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. Retrieved 18 September May Journal of Pediatric Urology. British Medical Journal. The American Journal of Medicine. New York, NY [u. Schiebel, G. Singer, S. Ebner, W. Schempp, and G. National Center for Biotechnology Information. National Library of Medicine, June Archived at the Wayback Machine Retrieved March 26, Orphanet J Rare Dis.
Int Urol Nephrol. Retrieved Tiger Howard Devore PhD". We Who Feel Differently. February 7, Interact Advocates for Intersex Youth. Retrieved 30 May UK Intersex Association.
Gay Star News. The Independent. Evening Standard. Archived from the original PDF on 14 September Retrieved 2 February Genetics in Medicine. Senate Community Affairs Committee.
October Sociology of Diagnosis Advances in Medical Sociology. Advances in Medical Sociology. The American Journal of Bioethics.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 26 July Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. Hormone Research in Paediatrics. Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, A. World Health Organization. MeSH : D Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex.
Genetic counseling Pre-conception counseling Sex education. Men's Women's Vulvovaginal Research Self-report sexual risk behaviors. Abortion Birth spacing Maternal health Obstetrics Options counseling Pregnancy from rape Pregnant patients' rights Prenatal care Teenage pregnancy Preteen pregnancy Unintended pregnancy. Andrology Genitourinary medicine Gynaecology Obstetrics and gynaecology Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Sexual medicine.
Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection Clinic.
Birth control movement in the United States History of condoms Social hygiene movement Timeline of reproductive rights legislation. Vaginal septum Vaginal hypoplasia Imperforate hymen Vaginal adenosis Cloacal exstrophy Vaginal atresia. Clitoromegaly Progestin-induced virilization Pseudohermaphroditism True hermaphroditism.