To help Australians avoid difficulties overseas, we maintain travel advisories for more than destinations. The Australian Passport Office and its agents are committed to providing a secure, efficient and responsive passport service for Australia. The Pacific Alliance was initiated in and formalised by a framework agreement in Its members — Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia — have outward-oriented trade liberalising policies. The Alliance aims to achieve the free movement of goods, services, capital and people among members.
United Kingdom. Cuba has been excluded since and Venezuela has applied to leave. All Rights Reserved. Since joining, Australia has attended summits annually since Google Tag Manager. The Alliance Institutions from latin american to achieve the free movement of goods, services, capital and people among members. Institutiions has also sought to encourage dialogue between the government and opposition in Venezuela, with Amefican Secretary General Ernest Sampo leading a delegation, including the foreign ministers of Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador, to Caracas in March Award A concern with the role of institutions has become the dominant in discussions about the causes for the wealth and poverty of nations, and the work of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail feom, has become an authoritative reference in the field. Institutions from latin american of page.
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For Latin Institutons, see Latin Americans. In Inatitutionsthe conflict manifested itself as a prolonged civil war between unitarianas i. For the period —, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages. This would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D. Main articles: Latin Insttutions wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence. History of Modern Latin America: to the Present. The region was home Male teenage leather jacket fashion many indigenous peoples Flat tanning beds advanced civilizations, including the AztecsToltecsMayaand Inca. Between andthe country existed as a confederationwithout a head of state, although the federalist governor of Buenos Aires province, Juan Manuel de Rosaswas given the powers of debt payment and Institutinos relations and exerted a growing hegemony Institutions from latin american the country. In the Spanish and Portuguese Institutions from latin american, racial mixing or miscegenation was the norm and something that the Spanish and Portuguese had grown rather accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans in the Iberian peninsula. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement.
This chapter notes that although Latin America has fallen behind the more developed countries as regards per capita income, there is still much debate about when and why this happened, analysing the relation between long-term growth and institutional development in Latin America.
- After a period of rapid expansion, the Latin America banking sector has experienced slower growth in recent years because of political upheaval and plummeting commodity prices.
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This chapter notes that although Latin America has fallen behind the more developed countries as regards per capita income, there is still much debate about when and why this happened, analysing the relation between long-term growth and institutional development in Latin America. It proposes some guidelines to interpreting long-run Latin American development that try to capture the contributions of recent research, but also finds some inspiration in previous structuralist and Marxist writings on Latin America.
The first part of the chapter presents a few stylized facts about Latin American relative performance, to which the institutional discussion is related. The second part starts with a conceptual discussion of institutions and relations of production, and discusses different applications to the Latin American context.
Keywords: institutional development , Latin America , per capita income , Marxist writings , structuralism. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.
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Abstract and Keywords This chapter notes that although Latin America has fallen behind the more developed countries as regards per capita income, there is still much debate about when and why this happened, analysing the relation between long-term growth and institutional development in Latin America. All rights reserved.
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It was originally drafted to meet the present major concerns, but eventually became the precept of U. Appendix II: Projections in Detail. He asked Latin American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France was: "Hypocrite, because she [France] calls herself protector of the Latin race just to subject it to her exploitation regime; treacherous, because she speaks of freedom and nationality, when, unable to conquer freedom for herself, she enslaves others instead! Popular Courses. Iowa Research Online.
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Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress in , to establish economic cooperation between the U. Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin American customs. Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in , as part of the Banana Wars , the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in during the Nicaraguan Revolution.
The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U. The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in —79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate.
The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.
Other Latin countries with governments of the left, including Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies. Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik , who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies.
The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty.
This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by NAFTA , and elsewhere in the Americas through a series of like agreements.
The comprehensive Free Trade Area of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 4th Summit of the Americas.
In most countries, since the s left-wing political parties have risen to power. In , Mexico announced that it could not meet its foreign debt payment obligations, inaugurating a debt crisis that would "discredit" Latin American economies throughout the decade. A "reversal of development" reigned over Latin America, seen through negative economic growth, declines in industrial production, and thus, falling living standards for the middle and lower classes.
Significantly, as democracy spread across much of Latin America, the realm of government became more inclusive a trend that proved conducive to social movements , the economic ventures remained exclusive to a few elite groups within society. Neoliberal restructuring consistently redistributed income upward while denying political responsibility to provide social welfare rights, and though development projects took place throughout the region, both inequality and poverty increased.
Both urban and rural populations had serious grievances as a result of the above economic and global trends and have voiced them in mass demonstrations. Some of the largest and most violent of these have been protests against cuts in urban services, such as the Caracazo in Venezuela and the Argentinazo in Argentina.
Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and indigenous concerns, neoliberal agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood.
These movements have benefited considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. The s commodities boom caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Another trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China. With the end of the commodity boom in the s, economic stagnation or recession resulted in some countries.
As a result, the left-wing governments of the Pink Tide lost support. The worst-hit was Venezuela, which is facing severe social and economic upheaval. The corruption scandal of Odebrecht , a Brazilian conglomerate, has raised allegations of corruption across the region's governments see Operation Car Wash.
The bribery ring has become the largest corruption scandal in Latin American history. The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America. Mexico City , Mexico. The inhabitants of Latin America are of a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: some have a predominance of European-Amerindian or more commonly referred to as Mestizo or Castizo depending on the admixture, population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are primarily Mulatto.
Various black , Asian and Zambo mixed black and Amerindian minorities are also identified regularly. Before Hispanics became such a 'noticeable' group in the U. The notion of racial continuum and a separation of race or skin color and ethnicity, on the other hand, is the norm in most of Latin America.
In the Spanish and Portuguese empires, racial mixing or miscegenation was the norm and something that the Spanish and Portuguese had grown rather accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans in the Iberian peninsula. But, demographics may have made this inevitable as well. Thus, for example, of the approximately This contrasts with the U. The fact of the recognition of a racial continuum in Hispanic American sic does not mean that there wasn't discrimination, which there was, or that there wasn't an obsession with race, or 'castes', as they were sometimes called.
In areas with large indigenous Amerindian populations, a racial mixture resulted, which is known in Spanish as mestizos Similarly, when African slaves were brought to the Caribbean region and Brazil, where there was very little indigenous presence left, unions between them and Spanish produced a population of mixed mulatos Spanish colonization was rather different from later English, or British, colonization of North America.
They had different systems of colonization and different methods of subjugation. While the English were primarily interested in grabbing land, the Spanish in addition had a mandate to incorporate the land's inhabitants into their society, something which was achieved by religious conversion and sexual unions which produced a new 'race' of mestizos , a mixture of Europeans and indigenous peoples.
Racial mixing or miscegenation, after all, was something that the Spanish and Portuguese had been accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans.
Similarly, later on, when African slaves were introduced into the Caribbean basin region, unions between them and Spaniards produced a population of mulatos , who are a majority of the population in the Caribbean islands the Antilles Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico , as well as other areas of the Caribbean region Colombia, Venezuela and parts of the Central American Caribbean coast.
Racially mixed societies arose in most of Spanish and Portuguese America, compounded in varying proportions from European, Indian, and Negro strands. Fairly frequent resort to manumission mitigated the hardships of slavery in those areas; and the Catholic church positively encouraged marriages between white immigrants and Indian women as a remedy for sexual immorality.
However, in the southern English colonies and in most of the Caribbean islands, the importation of Negro slaves created a much more sharply polarized biracial society.
Strong race feeling and the servile status of nearly all Negroes interdicted intermarriage, practically if not legally. Such discrimination did not prevent interbreeding; but children of mixed parentage were assigned to the status of their mothers.
Mulattoes and Indian half-breeds were thereby excluded from the white community. In Spanish and, with some differences, Portuguese territories a more elaborate and less oppressive principle of racial discrimination established itself. The handful of persons who had been born in the homelands claimed topmost social prestige; next came those of purely European descent; while beneath ranged the various racial blends to form a social pyramid whose numerous racial distinctions meant that no one barrier could become as ugly and inpenetrable as that dividing whites from Negroes in the English, Dutch, and French colonies.
The demographic makeup of colonial Latin America became more complex when, as the native population declined, the Portuguese, Spanish, and the French in Haiti turned to Africa for labor, as did the British in North America. The tricontinental heritage that characterizes Latin America, then, is shared by the United States, but even a casual examination reveals that the outcome of the complex interaction of different peoples has varied.
While miscegenation among the three races certainly occurred in North America, it appears to have been much less common than in Latin America. Furthermore, offspring of such liaisons were not recognized as belonging to new, distinct racial categories in North America as they were in Latin America. The terms mestizo or mameluco , mulatto, the general term castas , and dozens of subcategories of racial identity frankly recognized the outcomes of interracial sexual activity in Latin America and established a continuum of race rather than the unrealistic absolute categories of white, black, or Indian as used in the United States.
The U. Census Bureau's forms did not allow individuals to list more than one race until Spanish is the predominant language of Latin America. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil Brazilian Portuguese , the biggest and most populous country in the region. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries and territories on the Latin American mainland Spanish language in the Americas , as well as in Cuba , Puerto Rico where it is co-official with English , and the Dominican Republic.
French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe , Martinique and Guiana , and the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon ; it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent.
As Dutch is a Germanic language , these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent e.
Mexico is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of indigenous languages than any Latin American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl.
In Peru , Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador , while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Nicaragua , Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito , Sumo , and Rama also hold official status.
Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken.
The most widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole , the predominant language of Haiti ; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian , English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well.
Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras , Guatemala , Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves.
Primarily an Arawakan language , it has influences from Caribbean and European languages. Archaeologists have deciphered over 15 pre-Columbian distinct writing systems from mesoamerican societies. More than half of these are converts from Roman Catholicism. Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration.
About 10 million Mexicans live in the United States. Their experiences bear similarities to those of Japanese Peruvian immigrants, who are often relegated to low income jobs typically occupied by foreigners. For the period —, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages.
As a result of the Haiti Earthquake and its social and economic impact, there was a significant migration of Haitians to other Latin American countries.
The countries of Latin America seek to strengthen links between migrants and their states of origin, while promoting their integration in the receiving state. These Emigrant Policies focus on the rights, obligations and opportunities for participation of emigrated citizens who already live outside the borders of the country of origin.
Research on Latin America shows that the extension of policies towards migrants is linked to a focus on civil rights and state benefits that can positively influence integration in recipient countries.
In addition, the tolerance of dual citizenship has spread more in Latin America than in any other region of the world. Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin America. The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably.
Quality issues such as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the region. These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early. Compared to prior generations, Latin American youth have seen an increase in their levels of education. On average, they have completed two years schooling more than their parents. However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system.
Among primary school age children ages 6 to 12 , coverage is almost universal; however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system. These children live mostly in remote areas, are indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty.
Currently, more than half of low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education. Latin America and the Caribbean have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous regions in the world.
Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region. Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and citizens in Latin America and the Caribbean region.
Homicide rates in Latin America are the highest in the world. From the early s through the mids, homicide rates increased by 50 percent. Latin America and the Caribbean experienced more than 2. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old. Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per , inhabitants as of were: El Salvador , Honduras 64, Venezuela 57, Jamaica 43, Belize Brazil has more overall homicides than any country in the world, at 50,, accounting for one in 10 globally.
However, there is a substantial gap between Latin America and the developed economies. In the Andean region this gap can be a consequence of low human capital among Inca Indios in Pre-Columbian times. It is evident that the numeracy value of Peruvian Indios in the early 16th century was just half of the numeracy of the Spanish and Portuguese. Many nations such as those in Asia have joined others on a rapid economic growth path, but Latin America has grown at slower pace and its share of world output declined from 9.
Latin America is the region with the highest levels of income inequality in the world. Green cells indicate the best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest. Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators over the past decade.
The major trade blocs or agreements in the region are the Pacific Alliance and Mercosur. However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally admitted into the Mercosur pending ratification from the Paraguayan legislature.
The president-elect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path. Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin American countries. It received by far the largest number of international tourists, with Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide.
It is the product of many diverse influences:. Due to the impact of Enlightenment ideals after the French revolution, a certain number of Iberian-American countries decriminalized homosexuality after France and French territories in the Americas in Some of the countries that abolished sodomy laws or banned any reference to state interference in consensual adult sexuality in the 19th century were Dominican Republic , Brazil , Peru , Mexico , Paraguay , Argentina , Honduras , Guatemala and El Salvador.
Civil unions can be held in Chile. Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters.
In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. Painter Frida Kahlo , one of the most famous Mexican artists, painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism , Symbolism and Surrealism.
Kahlo's work commands the highest selling price of all Latin American paintings. Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero is also widely known    [ by whom? Latin American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba. Latin American film flourished after sound was introduced in cinema, which added a linguistic barrier to the export of Hollywood film south of the border.
Mexican cinema started out in the silent era from to and flourished in the Golden Era of the s. In the s, Mexico was the location for many cult horror and action movies. Argentine cinema has also been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today averages over 60 full-length titles yearly.
The industry suffered during the — military dictatorship ; but re-emerged to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story in A wave of imported U. Many Argentine movies produced during recent years have been internationally acclaimed, including Nueve reinas , Son of the Bride , El abrazo partido , El otro , the Foreign Language Academy Award winner El secreto de sus ojos and Wild Tales In Brazil , the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message.
The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe and the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil , Cidade de Deus and Tropa de Elite An influx of Hollywood films affected the local film industry in Puerto Rico during the s and s, but several Puerto Rican films have been produced since and it has been recovering.
Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento The 19th century also witnessed the realist work of Machado de Assis , who made use of surreal devices of metaphor and playful narrative construction, much admired by critic Harold Bloom.
This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue.
Latin America has produced many successful worldwide artists in terms of recorded global music sales. Enrique Iglesias , although not a Latin American, has also contributed for the success of Latin music. Caribbean Hispanic music, such as merengue , bachata , salsa , and more recently reggaeton , from such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Panama, has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies.
Haiti's compas is a genre of music that is influenced by its Caribbean Hispanic counterparts, along with elements of jazz and modern sounds. Other influential Latin American sounds include the Antillean soca and calypso , the Honduran Garifuna punta , the Colombian cumbia and vallenato , the Chilean cueca , the Ecuadorian boleros , and rockoleras , the Mexican ranchera and the mariachi which is the epitome of Mexican soul, the Nicaraguan palo de Mayo , the Peruvian marinera and tondero , the Uruguayan candombe , the French Antillean zouk derived from Haitian compas and the various styles of music from pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean region.
The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos — worked on the recording of native musical traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his classical works. Latin America has also produced world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau , Brazilian pianist Nelson Freire and the Argentine pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim.
Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin American and Caribbean countries is expressed. Latin pop , including many forms of rock , is popular in Latin America today see Spanish language rock and roll. More recently, reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin America genres such as bomba and plena , as well as hip hop , is becoming more popular, in spite of the controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps Perreo and music videos.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Latin-America. For Latin Americans, see Latin Americans. Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken.
Main article: History of Latin America. Main articles: Settlement of the Americas , Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas , and Pre-Columbian era. Main articles: European colonization of the Americas , Spanish colonization of the Americas , and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. See also: Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Atlantic slave trade.
Main articles: Latin American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence. Main articles: Independence of Brazil and Empire of Brazil. Government under traditional Spanish law. Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes. American junta or insurrection movement. Independent state declared or established.
Height of French control of the Peninsula. See also: Pan-Americanism. Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion. Main article: Washington Consensus. See also: Free Trade Area of the Americas. See also: Pink tide. Main article: Latin Americans. See also: Demographics of South America. Main article: Ethnic groups in Latin America. Main article: Religion in Latin America. See also: Education in Latin America. Main article: Crime and violence in Latin America.
Main article: Latin American economy. Main article: Wealth inequality in Latin America. Main article: Latin American culture. Main article: Latin American art. See also: List of Latin American artists.
Main article: Latin American cinema. Main article: Latin American literature. See also: List of Latin American writers. World Bank. Retrieved September 12, Retrieved 10 September Brookings Institution. Retrieved 22 January Britton December 2, Retrieved The Idea of Latin America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Ortega y Medina, ed. Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. The American Historical Review. Cham, Switzerland. What's in a Name?
In Gutierrez, Ramon A. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 6 August The word latinoamericano emerged in the years following the wars of independence in Spain's former colonies. By the late s, Californios were writing in newspapers about their membership in America latina Latin America and latinoamerica, calling themselves latinos as the shortened name for their hemispheric membership in la raza latina the Latin race.
Reprinting an opinion piece by a correspondent in Havana on race relations in the Americas, El Clamor Publico of Los Angeles surmised that 'two rival races are competing with each other Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 4 July New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Skidmore, Thomas E. Smith Modern Latin America 6th ed. Encyclopedia of Latin American Popular Music. Latin America: A Regional Geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Dozer, Donald Marquand Latin America: An Interpretive History.
New York: McGraw-Hill. Szulc, Tad Latin America. New York Times Company. Olien, Michael D. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Black, Jan Knippers, ed. Boulder: Westview Press. Burns, E. Bradford New York: Prentice-Hall. Accessed on line 23 May The World Bank. Retrieved on 17 July Chicago: University of Chicago Press , 1, 3. Jaime Eyzaguirre en su tiempo in Spanish.
Langer Eds. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. El liberalismo hispanoamericano en el siglo XIX. Madrid: Alianza. Historia de la Argentina Vol. Uruguay: A Country Study. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Colegio Woodville, n.
French Intervention in Mexico in Duke University Press. S Department of State Office of the Historian. Iowa Research Online. University of Iowa. A History of Latin America. London: Mail Online. Retrieved 24 May Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 29 May The Netherlands East Indies — Cline, The United States and Mexico , revised edition. New York: Atheneum Press, , p. Retrieved 30 May BBC News. Rutgers University. Institute of Latin American Studies. A history of Latin America. Latin America after Neoliberalism. Alvarez, eds. Boulder: Westview, Latin American Social Movements. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 7 April Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved 14 July Plos genetics. Convergencia in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on The University of Chicago Press. History of Modern Latin America: to the Present. Wiley Blackwell, Retrieved 13 May American Factfinder. From the Spanish Archives of the Indies "The infantry does not amount to two hundred men, in three companies.
If these men were that number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, although I have not seen them, because they have not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians Native Americans.
Retrieved 21 December Archived from the original on Profiles by Country or Area ". El Universal. Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 26 April In Brown, B. Cambridge, U. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 21, Retrieved February 1, Says — US Department of State". Belize Bank has helped the small Central American country overcome longstanding criticisms over how much it lagged its neighbors in terms of automated banking. The bank replaced its year-old ATM operating system in , launching a mobile banking app as part of the upgrade.
The National Commercial Bank of Jamaica put into production the first solution obtained from its digital Agile Lab last year, allowing customers to open accounts online. The bank believes this is the first solution of its kind in the English-speaking Caribbean. In , its neighborhood sub-agents—which include supermarkets, grocery stores, pharmacies and gas stations—handled more than 1 million transactions. Banco Ficohsa in Honduras, which operates in five countries and most recently acquired an insurance company in Guatemala, views education as the main catalyst for economic development.
Among its CSR efforts, it has created 29 technology centers equipped with more than computers, built preschool education centers and trained teachers. In neighboring Nicaragua, Banco LAFISE Bancentro integrates technology into the learning process by providing students and teachers with laptops and sustainable connectivity infrastructure in schools. To meet its goals, the bank has partnered with the One Laptop per Child Program. The bank also offers mortgage seminars to the community, recognizing that mortgages and home ownership have a multiplier effect on local economies.
The program also participates in youth development efforts through poverty alleviation and assistance to persons with disabilities. Scotiabank Barbados sponsors Bank on Me, a reality television show that provides mentoring and coaching for entrepreneurs who also compete for cash prizes.
Hurricanes Maria and Irma destroyed infrastructure, downed power lines and left many families homeless throughout the region. In Puerto Rico, Maria wreaked havoc on an already weakened economy, prompting Banco Popular de Puerto Rico to spring into action to tend to its customers.
Banco Popular took some unusual measures, including printing out balances and transporting receipts by car to rural branches. It gave customers a three-month grace period for loan repayments and is still helping to modify mortgage terms for storm victims. The bank engages in community reinvestment to support low- and moderate-income individuals and families in education, financial literacy and housing.
It also promotes economic, community and social development, and environmental and community revitalization. Scotiabank Turks and Caicos also declared payment moratoria on mortgages, personal loans, credit cards and lines of credit, thereby contributing to hurricane relief efforts for islanders there. As the primary relationship bank for the local government, its role in such efforts has been substantial. In , the bank also maintained its leadership in savings deposits, with a Banco de Chile reported a 4.
It also worked to improve productivity, maintain adequate levels of risk-return and control expenses proactively. It also grew its branch network by With sustainability efforts becoming increasingly important, the bank last year moved 2, employees to its new, environmentally friendly operations center last year. Government policies in El Salvador have, in some cases, favored the banking sector by supporting overall economic performance.
Latin American regional organisations - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Almost a decade ago, The Economist had a cover story about the Brazilian economy taking off. Everything seemed fine, with the Brazilian economy on the verge of surpassing Britain and France, and on its way to economic development. The Economist essentially reproduced a few of the policies of the so-called Washington Consensus as the main driver of the Brazilian success. And institutions played a central role, in particular the institutions that allowed for the market economy to thrive.
It is painfully clear now, after two years of a collapsing economy, significant political upheaval, an impeachment that many see as a coup , and the imprisonment of an ex-president on corruption charges that many see as unfounded , that The Economist was too optimistic about Brazil.
The Economist briefly suggested in that piece that the danger for the Brazilian economy was associated to the excessive dependence on commodity exports, and that a collapse of the prices of commodities could spell disaster for the Brazilian economy. The problems with the persistence of this development strategy should have been at the center of their analysis. Further we argued that the pattern of specialization in Latin America, which resulted to a great extent from globalization and greater integration of production, trade and financial flows, and the rise of China as a global producer of manufactured goods, needed to be changed, and that institutions that fostered the transformation would have to be built or, when existing, strengthened.
To be fair, there has been an institutional turn in development economics. A concern with the role of institutions has become the dominant in discussions about the causes for the wealth and poverty of nations, and the work of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail , has become an authoritative reference in the field.
Their work builds on the New Institutionalist analysis of Nobel Prize winner Douglas North and emphasizes the role of property rights and the rule of law to promote the appropriate incentives, within a market economy, and economic development. The papers in our book try to go beyond the institutions discussed by New Institutional authors, and to provide an assessment of what institutions have worked in the past, and a more balanced view in which public institutions, and not just market friendly ones, could play a relevant role in promoting economic development in the region.
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